General in formation Azerbaijan

General information

The map of Azerbaijan Republic is shaped somewhat like an eagly in flight with Baku for its head.

Baku is situated on the Apsheron Peninsula which is  just about 40 miles out into Caspian Sea at the point where slopes of the Great Caucasus Range descent to the sea.

The low shoreline with its historical coastal road is protected here by mountains. Hills,about 1,150-1,300 ft. high from a natural amphitheatre with a convenient harbour-an ideal location for a city. They also provide good limestone for building. Combine all this with the fabulous local mineral resources of which Jules Verne once wrote that obtain instant heating and lighting all you need to do is to make a hole in the ground and natural gas with fire  will gush out –and it will be understood why from earliest times man decided to settle at this spot.

Millions of years back the land here was under the sea. Later on movements in the earth’s crust led to the formation of dry land. The land-locked Caspian Sea is in fact the largest lake in the world and over the centuries has had seventy different names. The present level of the Caspian Sea which in the course of its history had advanced on dry land and receded several times is 90 ft. below that of the World Ocean and it is still constantly changing. At Baku latitude the sea does freeze over and Baku port is open all the year round. In many respects the Caspian Sea however deserves the name Sea :it has a surface area of 400,000 salinity(13 lb per 1,00016 water as compared to 16 lb of that of the Black Sea) and it is subject to frequent storms(force 8-9).

Baku has a moderately warm and dry subtropical climate with hot summers and short mild winters. Frosts occurs once every 10-15 years. The average temperature is 3-4 C above zero in January 25-26 C in July. On the same latitude as Greece and Italy the Absheron Peninsula is warmer and drier. Incidentally its average yearly temperature of 14.4 C coincides with that of the Earth. It has the greatest number of fine days in the year(284)  of all places in the Caucasus and the smallest amount of rainfall (180mm in the south 322mm in the north).

The prevailing winds are either from the south-Hilavar or the north-Hazri i.e Caspian. The Hazri is in fact a very strong sea wind channeled onto the Apsheron Peninsula by the mountains.

There is a story about a traveler who came home with a report that during the four days he spent in Baku he had witnessed the four seasons of the year. Yet on the whole the Hazri is a kind of blessing for it blows fresh air through and moderates the summer heat.

Baku today is a city of gardens and parks. There is now 20 sq.m. of greenery per head a ration, higher than in London, Rome or Bucharest.

The first thing a traveler notices upon arrival in Baku is its unique smell: a peculiar mixture of dry mountain air, tempered oil and gas. Wonderful and unforgettable ,as

visiting Russian writers have more than once described it.

The average city family consists of 4-5 persons. Woman who live longer, slightly outnumber the men. There are  45 people aged over hundred per 100,000 of the  population. Several factors may cause this: the mountain climate genes, the rare medical herbs, the steady rhythm of life, healthy toil in the fresh air ,a lot of walking over hills and a balanced diet. Another contributing factor may be that the old, as a rule, tend to live with their children, grand-children and great grand-children, enjoying their love after retirement age.

Come and see for yourself this is a country of active old age and of beautiful children.


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